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gravitational lensing equation

Strong Lensing Effects • Einstein Rings/Arcs (aka Chowlson Ring) ¾a deformation of the light from a source into a ring through gravitational deflection of the source’s light by a lens ¾Occurs when the source, lens and observer are all aligned ¾We see an arc when the object, lens, and observer are not perfectly aligned. The concept behind gravitational lensing is simple: everything in the universe has mass and that mass has a gravitational pull. In the first, starting from the equation of geodesic deviation, the equations of thin and extended gravitational lensing are … The standard gravitational lens theory is valid for weak stationary gravitational fields. gravitational lensing can manifest itself as a group of stretched out, lensed galaxies forming arcs around a cluster. The homogeneous plasma (second term in equation 7) increases the deflection angle of gravitational lensing. Figure 2: the galaxy cluster: Abell 2218 (Richard, 2008). Gravitational Lensing In general relativity, the presence of matter (energy density) can curve spacetime, and the path of a light ray will be deflected as a result. Gravitational lensing has developed into one of the most powerful tools for the analysis of the dark universe. If an object is massive enough, its strong gravitational pull will bend light as it passes by. Looking through a lensing galaxy cluster, Hubble can see fainter and more distant galaxies than otherwise possible. The gravitational lensing results in multiple images of the original galaxy each with a characteristically distorted banana-like shape or even into rings. Hubble was the first telescope to resolve details within these multiple banana-shaped arcs. The deflection has well-known observable effects, such as multiple images, magnification of images, and time delays for propagation of light along the paths forming different images. The Mechanics of a Gravitational Lens . It has two parts. The complex lens equation leads to study the number of preimages of the function F(z) = z K Z c 0 (z)2 u2 1=2 du z: Perhaps this is not so hard! 2. Galaxy cluster Abell 383 is a gravitational lens. The density of plasma in galaxies usually decreases with radius, thus, the refraction deflection (third term in equation 7 ) is opposite to the gravitational deflection, since the refractive index of plasma is smaller than 1. 2 Figure 1: Gravitational lensing, exagerated scale (Calcada, 2011). One famous example is Abell 2218 as shown in Figure 2. Gravitational lensing is the name for the bending of light by gravity, as the source of gravity (e.g. F. Chamizo Gravitational lensing 17 IntroductionComplexElliptical IElliptical IIDisks For (planar) elliptic galaxies with isothermal density. a galaxy) acts as a physical lens which bends the light. glass) lenses in optics. Gravitational Lensing An interesting prediction of general relativity is that light does not just travel in a straight line, but its path is bent by gravity. Gravitational lensing not only distorts the image of a background galaxy, it can amplify its light. In this respect, Gravitational Microlensing is a scaled-down version of Gravitational Lensing, where an intervening object (like a galaxy cluster) is used to focus light coming from a … A gravitational lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer.This effect is known as gravitational lensing, and the amount of bending is one of the predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. It is like having an extra lens that is the size of the galaxy cluster. 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