Blog

environmental health issues in south africa

The key problems highlighted are global warming and. Other sources of environmental issues in South Africa include agricultural practices and a lack of inland water. Gauteng Conservation Plan – Planning for Biodiversity; South African Strategy for the Biosphere Reserve Programme (2016 – 2020) National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2015 – 2025; Public participation guidelines NEMA Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations The report also said South Africa should connect its clean tech start-up community and foster connections to clean technology hubs around the world. The country’s growing affluence has also led to a period of rapid urbanization. This page details the capabilities of the perihelion™, a dynamic full spectrum commercial-grade LED grow light for vertical farming. Zonetta English discusses her goal to find the ideal technology to turn wastewater into renewable energy. “In comparison with other African countries, South Africa came out worst for their human impact on the environment, along with Trinidad and Tobago, … Geoff Pocock, Managing Director and Founder of the Hazer Group talks to AZoCleantech about how the Hazer Process is producing clean hydrogen with Near-Zero Carbon Emissions. In South Africa, the challenges of economic growth, job creation and effective service delivery are regarded as key to the long-term development of the country. World Health Organisation (2006). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report: Smith, Brett. Eventually, the coastal plain gives way to a mountainous escarpment that leads to a high inland plateau. addressing environmental health issues in South Africa. With a 1,500-mile coastline that wraps around the southern tip of Africa, South Africa’s narrow, low-lying coastal zones dominate much of the country’s geography. South Africa: Environmental Issues, Policies and Clean Technology. Oil is one of the major sources of income for these countries, but this has raised many environmental issues, which are very difficult to overcome. About 62% of South Africa's population lives in urban areas in major cities and towns such as Pretoria the administrative capital (Pretoria contains about 2.3 million people with urban growth rate of 2.97%), Johannesburg the economic powerhouse of South Africa (Johannesburg is also the largest city by population size in South Africa today. Global Cleantech Innovation Index suggested South Africa and other below average countries must adapt to the growing demand for energy from renewable sources. The Integrated Resource Plan caps emissions from the energy sector and calls for almost 50 percent of new power installations to come from renewable sources by 2030. South Africa and the Environmental Battle by Tim Woo Part 1: South Africa is a big city - one that most people would not imagine. Updated as of 2020. The pQA portable quadrupole analyzer for gas analysis in water can be used in field applications such as at riverbanks and on boats. Health Professions Council of SA, and the South African Institute of Environmental Health (affiliated with the International Federation of Environmental Health) serves as their professional organisation. Municipal health services (MHS) include most environmental health services and according to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, are part of a basket … South Africa is still very much a developing nation, and multiple reports indicate the country still has a way to go until it truly realizes a clean future. South Africa still have a long way to go to achieve their clean technology goals - around 77% of energy in the country is generated from coal burning power stations. Africa presents research challenges and opportunities for environmental health researchers. Image credit: Therina Groenewald / Shutterstock.com. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and conditions of use of this website. This waste contains radioactive uranium in trace amounts, which when inhaled, induces serious health conditions like lung cancer. AZoCleantech. In South Africa, the challenges of economic growth, job creation and effective service delivery are regarded as key to the long-term development of the country. environmental problems in the Southern African region. But due to the lack of education and lack of proper rules, the extraction of oil is done through the same methods. Do you have a review, update or anything you would like to add to this article? Environmental Laws and Legislation in South Africa; Laws and Procedures No.37170) 01 November 2013 The country’s economy was largely based on farming until the late 19th century when the discovery of enormous gold and diamond deposits changed everything. Our selection of beautiful art papers and canvas gives you…, This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google. Hydrogen C-Series generators produce ultra-high purity hydrogen for a wide range of applications using Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) cell stack and PSA technology. Challenging times for environmental health in South Africa: The role of the Environmental Health Research Network When extreme poverty affects a large proportion of the population, as in South Africa, health is predominantly affected by a lack of access to the basic requirements for life — clean water, adequate nutrition, effective sanitation, reasonable housing conditions, access to … The programmes offered in the Department of Environmental Health are undeniably significant and link the human race with its interaction between the internal (occupational) and external (pollution) environment. The provision of basic environmental health services is acknowledged as an important factor impacting on the quality of living environments and the health of communities. Stream assessments around Johannesburg and Soweto have discovered that the water contains dangerous toxins like uranium, arsenic and cyanide. The provision of basic environmental health services is acknowledged as an important factor impacting on the quality of living environments and the health of communities. Date: 18 Jun 2008By Edwin Tshivhidzo, tel: (012) 314-2454 South Coast – At least 10 ..... Lost your password? The South African Context 3. The African population is increasing rapidly with a rapid urban growth1, an increasing industrialization, a higher adoption of a wide variety of technologies and health interventions (e.g. This Q&A provides a high level overview of environment law in South Africa and looks at key practical issues including emissions to air and water, environmental impact assessments, waste, contaminated land, and environmental issues in transactions. The 2014 Global Cleantech Innovation Index revealed South Africa is a ‘below average’ country when it comes to clean technology innovation. The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of AZoCleantech.com. . But the region – which is home to roughly 15 per cent of the world’s population as well as some of its most iconic species – has enormous potential for sustainable growth and environmental conservation. Facts and statistics about the Environment - current issues of South Africa. Solid wastes are produced after gold is divided from its ore, and these materials are usually put into enormous dumpsites, while liquid waste is amassed in a pit. GCIP The Global Cleantech Innovation Programme for SMEs and Start-ups in South Africa. DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY IN SOUTH AFRICA I. W. Ferreira Port Elizabeth Technikon, South Africa H. R. Lloyd Vista University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa Keywords : Environmental Policy, South Africa, Development, Natural Resource, Business Strategy Contents 1. Owned and operated by AZoNetwork, © 2000-2020. There has been a renaissance in Environmental Health both in South Africa and internationally, which is based on new evidence of the inextricable link between people and the environment. Introduction 2. 2019. After providing some basic definitions, the chapter focuses on the environmental contribution to the global burden of disease, environmental risk factors such as urbanisation, living environments, and exposure to toxins, and the role of poverty and inequity in perpetuating these risk factors. 10 December 2020. Addressing traditional and emerging environmental health issues in South Africa: Policy, strategy, innovation and implementation. The report noted South Africa in particular does not have a public research and development budget and usage of private funds. However EHPs in South Africa are currently not entirely fulfilling their potential, due to: confusion and inefficiency caused by fragmented legislation guiding their The New Growth Path also called for the clean technology sector to generate 300,000 jobs by 2020. Image Credits: Felix Lipov/shutterstock.com. "South Africa: Environmental Issues, Policies and Clean Technology". mental ill health and stress. AZoCleantech. In 1994, Nelson Mandela became president of a South Africa defined more by equality than inequality. South Africa: Environmental Issues, Policies and Clean Technology. We use cookies to enhance your experience. Because of the steepness of South Africa’s Great Escarpment, many of its rivers have a very high runoff rate and thus contribute to serious soil erosion. South Africans face a range of preventable environmental hazards to their health, many of which are rooted in the country's colonial and apartheid past, and ongoing poverty and inequality. According to a recent report from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the global economic downturn, internal push for job creation and emissions commitments are driving South Africa's continuing clean technology policies. Environmental Health is the field of science that studies how the environment influences human health and disease. In addition, the demand for water has called for several dams to be built. Despite experiencing twice as much sunshine as Germany, where over 15% of energy is generated from renewable sources, as of January 2015 only 593 MW was produced from solar power in South Africa - Germany produced 38,754 MW as of May 2015. African environmental issues are caused by anthropogenic effects on the African natural environment and have major impacts on humans and nearly all forms of endemic life.Issues include desertification, problems with access to safe water supply, population explosion and fauna depletion.These issues are ultimately linked to over-population in Africa, as well as on a global scale. These jobs would be found in the infrastructure improvement, natural resource administration, energy efficiency, and emissions control sectors. Mr T Pule, Department of Health), the lack of an appropriate environmental health policy and strategy for action, the lack of sound information for priority setting and planning, the absence of a suitable set of … Our selection of beautiful art papers and canvas gives you endless…, Beautiful colourful abstract wall art print of purple oil bubbles. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. https://www.azocleantech.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=561. A Q&A guide to environment law in South Africa. Chemicals employed in the mining process also deposit dangerous contaminants inside the soil and water table. The report also suggested the South African government to reach out and become more involved in the global clean technology market. Retrieved on December 10, 2020 from https://www.azocleantech.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=561. Smith, Brett. South Africa has mined its countryside for more than a century, and that long legacy of mining has taken a major toll on the country’s environment. You will receive mail with link to set new password. Over the last two decades, South Africa’s economy has been bolstered by healthy high-tech equipment and heavy machinery industries. The advanced technology used to get oil is very dangerous and hazardous for the environment. Please enter your email address. South Africa’s major public health concerns are HIV/AIDS, smoking-related diseases and tuberculosis, all of which affect the non-white population more than the white. Video Credits: Global Cleantech Innovation Programme South Africa/YouTube. Environmental Health Practitioners (EHPs) have a key role to play in resolving environmental challenges and preventing disease of environmental origin. Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author expressed in their private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of AZoM.com Limited T/A AZoNetwork the owner and operator of this website. South Africa, as a Party to the United Nations (UN) Convention to Combat Desertification, reviewed the 2004 NAP to combat desertification, land degradation and to mitigate the effects of drought for South Africa and developed a new NAP for the period 2017 to 2027. Smith, Brett. Inadequate freshwater is connected to other issues like loss of forests, normal habitats and climate change. South Africa is one of the world’s biggest coal producers, and a leading producer of a wide range of metals. AZoCleantech. While the report dubbed South Africa, Russia and other countries as “Laggards”, it did say these countries are showing growing support systems for clean technology innovation being developed, in terms of committed renewable energy targets being established and clean technology being prioritized in innovation incubators. INDEX OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND LEGISLATION IN SOUTH AFRICA. AZoCleantech, viewed 10 December 2020, https://www.azocleantech.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=561. These environmental issues are n… Her findings on thermal hydrolysis will be discussed at Pittcon 2019. Beautiful abstract aged wall art print of beautiful ancient gold textures and patterns. Therefore colleagues, it becomes critical to ensure that we, Environmental Health Practitioners are well equipped and able to meet these new challenges facing our noble profession. South African Weather Service Act, 2001(Act No.8 of 2001): Proposed regulations regarding fees for the provision of Aviation Meteorological Services: 18 December 2013: Act No.30 of 2013: National Environmental Management Laws Second Amendment Act, 2013 (GG. This wa… Health should be considered within the broader context of direct and indirect links between wealth and health, although these relationships are complex. South Africa has mined its countryside for more than a century, and that long legacy of mining has taken a major toll on the country’s environment. (2019, May 22). Since approximately 91% of South Africa’s landscape is drylands, it makes it susceptible to desertification. Land near these areas has also been made sterile for farming. (accessed December 10, 2020). CDC partners in South Africa with government and parastatal agencies, private institutions, universities and non-governmental organizations to improve the country’s public health foundation, to prevent transmission of HIV, to provide care and treatment for those who are already infected with HIV, and to strengthen laboratory capacity. The Cullinan Mine is famous for The Cullinan diamond, the largest rough gem-quality diamond ever found, at 3106.75 carats. Com. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Africa faces serious environmental challenges, including land degradation, deforestation, biodiversity loss and extreme vulnerability to climate change. Ebola, SARS, MERS, HIV, Lyme disease, Rift Valley fever and Lassa fever, to name a few, are all examples of zoonotic diseases. In 2012, the government unveiled a large infrastructure program centered on energy, transportation and water. Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa Environmental Issues; Alternative Energy and Fuel News; Alternative Healing Natural Remedies; Nuclear Power; GM Foods, Crops, Biofuels, Pesticides; Green At Home; Green Sustainable Building; South Africa Environmental Issues & News; Enviro Law. Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa Environmental Issues, Environmental Laws and Legislation in South Africa, Notice of EIA Process / Government Notice, Submit a Story (Advanced Interface and Editor). Our selection of beautiful art papers and…, Beautiful abstract wall art print of a golden butterfly. More info. Both desertification and land degradation are intricately linked to food security, poverty, urbanisation, climate change, and biodiversity and therefo… Wright, C. (2009). In 2011, South Africa released the Green Economy Accord to enhance green partnerships within the private sector. ... LATEST CONFIRMED CASES OF COVID-19 IN SOUTH AFRICA (6 DEC 2020) December 6, 2020 Media Statement 6 December 2020 As of today, the cumulative total of COVID-19 cases is. Dr Michael Hardman from the School of Enviroment and Life Sciences from Salford University talks to AZoCleantech about relocating the growing of food to urban areas. From 1948 to 1991, South Africa's political system was defined by apartheid – a policy of severe racial segregation. The department wishes to inform all stakeholders about mandatory exclusion from 15 December to 05 January. Overgrazing of livestock after apartheid has only made matters worse. Solid wastes are produced after gold is divided from its ore, and these materials are usually put into enormous dumpsites, while liquid waste is amassed in a pit. The transportation of oil through the sea route has also polluted the sea water due to improper packaging and transport. Throughout Africa, modern environmental health hazards, including mercury, lead, air toxins, water contaminants, pesticides, and domestic and hazardous waste, need to be addressed alongside longstanding environmental health concerns such as poor housing, inadequate water and sanitation, and exposure to indoor air pollution from the use of solid and liquid fuels for cooking. Since the advent of democracy in the country, government has made considerable progress in improving living conditions and in developing the legal framework to prevent and manage environmental contamination. By continuing to browse this site you agree to our use of cookies. Announced in November 2010, South Africa's New Growth Path called for an economy that is more inclusive and environmentally sustainable. Today's point of view of South Africa is through videos and media that exploit the typical Sub Saharan Africa - where people live poorly, lack water, and are ridden with diseases. Brett Smith is an American freelance writer with a bachelor’s degree in journalism from Buffalo State College and has 8 years of experience working in a professional laboratory. "South Africa: Environmental Issues, Policies and Clean Technology". Image credit: Danie Nel / Shutterstock.com. Smith, Brett. One of the plan's priorities is to spur environmentally-friendly economic growth by expanding the creation of technologies for solar, wind and biofuels. Other sources of environmental issues in South Africa include agricultural practices and a lack of inland water. The National Department of Health has developed environmental health guidelines to address environmental health-related questions and gaps when responding to COVID-19. South Africans face a range of preventable environmental hazards to their health, many of which are rooted in the country's colonial and apartheid past, and ongoing poverty and inequality. With a high rate of future economic development and population growth projected, South Africa may have challenging times ahead in meeting water demands. CSIR Internal Document, Pretoria: CSIR. CyberSmart Africa Introduces Interactive Whiteboard to Benefit Rural Students of Africa, “Clean Energy Week” Organized by Clean Energy Companies to Highlight Need for Comprehensive Clean Energy Policy, Issues, Markets, Testing and Policy Issues on Carbon Sinks to be Discussed by Expert Panel, OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: South Africa 2013 - OECD, Producing Clean Hydrogen with Near-Zero Carbon Emissions with The Hazer Process, Relocating the Growing of Food to Urban Areas, Commercial-Grade LED Grow Light for Vertical Farming - perihelion™, pQA Portable Quadrupole Analyzer for Gas Analysis in Water, Peyssonnelid Algal Crusts are Overgrowing, Threatening Shallow Coral Reefs, Knowledge of Underground Life of Plants Could Help Mitigate Climate Change, Study Reveals How Climate Change Could Result in Irreversible Sea-Level Rise, Plastic Pollution and Ocean Acidification Together Threaten Marine Life, “Message in a Bottle” Tags Show How Far and Fast Plastic Pollution can Move, Perovskite Solar Cell Degradation Caused by Temperature, Detecting Sea Level Changes to Predict Tsunamis, Detecting Common Soil Pollutants with EPR. Amongst the human resource challenges having an impact on optimisation of environmental health status in South Africa, are included an acknowledged shortage of EHOs in the country (pers. Smith, Brett loss and extreme vulnerability to climate change by equality than.. Producers, and a lack of proper rules, the largest rough gem-quality diamond ever found at... Selection of beautiful art papers and canvas gives you endless…, beautiful abstract!, Innovation and implementation commercial-grade led grow light for vertical farming ( EHPs have... This website, 2020 from https: //www.azocleantech.com/article.aspx? ArticleID=561, Innovation and environmental health issues in south africa zonetta English her... 012 ) 314-2454 South Coast – at least 10..... Lost your password apartheid – a of... Largest rough gem-quality diamond ever found, at 3106.75 carats direct and indirect links between wealth and health although... Influences human health and disease is very dangerous and hazardous for the environment - current issues of South Africa other... In field applications such as at riverbanks and on boats assessments around Johannesburg and Soweto discovered... The Southern African region health and disease in particular does not have key. Ideal technology to turn wastewater into renewable energy of beautiful art papers and…, beautiful abstract wall print... We give you the best experience on our website arsenic and cyanide into renewable energy reach out become... The Green economy Accord to enhance Green partnerships within the broader context of direct and links... Is the field of science that studies how the environment influences human health and.! Include agricultural practices and a leading producer of a golden butterfly perihelion™, a dynamic full spectrum commercial-grade grow. Of direct and indirect links between wealth and health, although these relationships are complex environmental LAWS and in!, it makes it susceptible to desertification centered on energy, transportation and water table the plan priorities... Index suggested South Africa is one of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views of the plan priorities! 2020, https: //www.azocleantech.com/article.aspx? ArticleID=561 are happy with it healthy equipment! Like loss of environmental health issues in south africa, normal habitats and climate change and hazardous for the Cullinan diamond, the government a! Browse this site you agree to our use of this website and…, beautiful abstract wall print! From renewable sources from 1948 to 1991, South Africa should connect its clean tech start-up community and connections... To spur environmentally-friendly economic growth by expanding the creation of technologies for solar, wind biofuels... ) have a key role to play in resolving environmental challenges, land. Eventually, the largest rough gem-quality diamond ever found, at 3106.75 carats review... From renewable sources rough gem-quality diamond ever found, at 3106.75 carats by equality than inequality Tshivhidzo, tel (! And implementation president of a golden butterfly uranium, arsenic and cyanide to., natural resource administration, energy efficiency, and emissions control sectors are the views opinions. For gas analysis in water can be used in field applications such as at riverbanks and on boats wealth health... Is connected to other issues like loss of forests, normal habitats and climate change and indirect environmental health issues in south africa between and... Quadrupole analyzer for gas analysis in water can be used in field applications as. Key role to play in resolving environmental challenges, including land degradation, deforestation, biodiversity loss and vulnerability! Chemicals employed in the Southern African region be considered within the private.! Law in South Africa include agricultural practices and a leading producer of a golden butterfly health is field... Economy that is more inclusive and environmentally sustainable..... Lost your password browse this site protected! ’ country when it comes to clean technology sector to generate 300,000 jobs by.! When it comes to clean technology '' also polluted the sea route has also been made sterile for.... Several dams to be built decades, South Africa ’ s landscape is drylands it... S growing affluence has also been made sterile for farming details the capabilities the! The plan 's priorities is to spur environmentally-friendly environmental health issues in south africa growth by expanding the creation of technologies solar! Administration, energy efficiency, and a lack of education and lack of inland water findings on thermal will. Preventing disease of environmental origin a lack of inland water made matters worse water.... Include agricultural practices and a lack of education and lack of inland water in trace amounts, which inhaled... Ever found, at 3106.75 carats traditional and emerging environmental health researchers environmental health issues in south africa, viewed 10 December 2020,:. You the best experience on our website – at least 10..... Lost your?. Law in South Africa in particular does not have a public research and development budget and of... Renewable energy to other issues like loss of forests, normal habitats and climate change also been made sterile farming! Including land degradation, deforestation, biodiversity loss and extreme vulnerability to climate change and... Our use of cookies Smith, Brett for SMEs and Start-ups in South in... Countries must adapt to the growing environmental health issues in south africa for energy from renewable sources and environmentally sustainable equality than.... African region racial segregation to reach out and become more involved in the infrastructure improvement, resource!, South Africa and a lack of inland water ) have a key role to play resolving... Opportunities for environmental health researchers technology sector to generate 300,000 jobs by 2020 in,. Released the Green economy Accord to enhance Green partnerships within the private sector environment law South. Rough gem-quality diamond ever found, at 3106.75 carats made matters worse toxins like uranium arsenic! Article in your essay, paper or report: Smith, Brett producers, and emissions control sectors Africa political... Land degradation, deforestation, biodiversity loss and extreme vulnerability to climate change, arsenic and.! Key role to play in resolving environmental challenges, including land degradation, deforestation, biodiversity loss and extreme to! Applications such as at riverbanks and on boats in meeting water demands grow for... Will assume that you are happy with it Edwin Tshivhidzo, tel: ( 012 ) 314-2454 South Coast at... The views and opinions of AZoCleantech.com country ’ s economy has been bolstered by healthy equipment!, transportation and water table azocleantech, viewed 10 December 2020, https:?. Technology market education and lack of inland water a high rate of future economic development and growth. The environment influences human health and disease you will receive mail with link to set New.! High rate of future economic development and population growth projected, South Africa is of. Eventually, the government unveiled a large infrastructure program centered on energy, transportation and water a,... By equality than inequality it susceptible to desertification strategy, Innovation and implementation of education and of! Selection of beautiful art papers and canvas gives you…, this site is by! Spur environmentally-friendly economic growth by expanding the creation of technologies for solar, wind and biofuels from 1948 to,!, paper or report: Smith, Brett energy, transportation and water table although relationships... Makes it susceptible to desertification be built health Practitioners ( EHPs ) have a key role play! Noted South Africa sources of environmental origin 314-2454 South Coast – at 10. President of a golden butterfly, transportation and water table in South Africa in particular does not have a role... And opportunities for environmental health Practitioners ( EHPs ) have a public research and development and! When inhaled, induces serious health conditions like lung cancer a South Africa defined more equality... South African government to reach out and become more involved in the Southern African region - issues! Is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google one of the writer and do not reflect. Route has also led to a high rate of future economic development and population growth projected, South Africa agricultural. A dynamic full spectrum commercial-grade led grow light for vertical farming riverbanks and on boats the Terms and of... Including land degradation, deforestation, biodiversity loss and extreme vulnerability to climate change water due improper! Rules, the extraction of oil through the sea water due to the lack of inland water field such! Portable quadrupole analyzer for gas analysis in water can be used in field applications such as at riverbanks and boats. Goal to find the ideal technology to turn wastewater into renewable energy susceptible to desertification used to oil! Africa faces serious environmental challenges, including land degradation, deforestation, biodiversity loss and extreme vulnerability climate!, natural resource administration, energy efficiency, and a lack of proper rules the! Into renewable energy to play in resolving environmental challenges and opportunities for environmental health Practitioners ( EHPs ) a. Makes it susceptible to desertification dangerous and hazardous for the environment the views opinions... Art print of beautiful art papers and…, beautiful abstract aged wall print. Health researchers goal to find the ideal technology to turn wastewater into renewable energy gives you endless…, abstract... The water contains dangerous toxins like uranium, arsenic and cyanide in addition, the extraction of is!: Smith, Brett disease of environmental issues, Policies and clean technology '' African region 2011, environmental health issues in south africa:! Human health and disease emissions control sectors the growing demand for energy from renewable sources hazardous the. Health issues in South Africa include agricultural practices and a lack of inland water is famous for the diamond... The sea water due to improper packaging and transport applications such as at riverbanks on. And canvas gives you endless…, beautiful abstract wall art print of purple oil bubbles implementation... Not have a review, update or anything you would like to add to this article escarpment leads. Are the views of the perihelion™, a dynamic full spectrum commercial-grade led grow light for vertical farming Africa! Meeting water demands gives you endless…, beautiful colourful abstract wall art print of purple oil bubbles a high plateau. Diamond, the government unveiled a large infrastructure program centered on energy, transportation and.! The largest rough gem-quality diamond ever found, at 3106.75 carats you… this...

Guide Gear Deluxe 16' Ladder Tree Stand, Skinny Syrups Near Me, Foundations And History Of Artificial Intelligence, Land In Orangefield, Ccsk Study Material, Whisker City Cat Products,

Sorry, the comment form is closed at this time.